Police killings in the United States have been reported by more than half over the past 40 years, according to a recent survey that raises serious questions about discrimination among medical researchers and shows a lack of credible national credentials on public health and human rights issues.
The study, conducted by researchers at the University of Washington and published by China in The Lancet, a major British medical textbook, is one of the most common causes of police violence in the United States, as well as serious wrongdoing of black people.
Researchers compared the data from a national database known as the National Vital Statistics System, which collects death certificates, with current data from three organizations monitoring police killings through news reports and public requests. When comparing and comparing that data back decades, they saw a remarkable difference: About 55 percent of fatal police encounters between 1980 and 2018 were listed as the cause of death.
The findings highlight all the controversies of medical investigators and coroners in covering up the actual amount of police violence, and the lack of international data on one issue has caused considerable instability. Nonprofits and journalists have filled the pit with media reports and media coverage.
“I think the biggest draw is that most people in public health tend to take a significant amount of US and other countries as a whole, and it happens, as our demonstration, a significant amount is missing in more than half of police violence.” to die, ”said Dr. Christopher Murray, director of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington, who conducted the study.
He continued: “You have to find out why these deaths are being taken by open research, media coverage and so on, which are not reflected in the official data.”
Researchers estimate that over the course of their study, which traces the duration of the drug war and the increasing number of prisoners, approximately 31,000 Americans have been killed by police, and more than 18,000 of them have been missing. This study also documented a specific debate: Black Americans had five times the number of murders by police as white Americans. The knowledge of Asia America was not included in the study, but Latinos and Native Americans also suffered more at the rate of fatal police violence than whites.
The annual death toll from police custody has risen sharply since 1980, although crime – despite the recent spate of homicides during the outbreak of recoronavirus – has dropped dramatically in the early 1990’s.
The states with the highest rates of police killings were Oklahoma, Arizona and Alaska, as well as the District of Columbia, while countries with lower prices in Massachusetts, Connecticut and Minnesota, as per the study.
Researchers estimate that at least 20 men have been killed by police in recent decades; more American men died in 2019 during a police encounter than from Hodgkin lymphoma or testicular cancer.
Unexplained or violent deaths in the United States are investigated by coroners or medical examiners, who use corpses, biological tests and evidence such as a video camera to determine the cause and manner of death. The death certificate doesn’t exactly ask if the police were involved – which could give the floor a chance to be seen by investigators – but many medical researchers have been trained to put that information together.
The system has always been criticized for promoting good relations and law enforcement – forensic pathologists regularly consult with detectives and prosecutors and in some cases they work directly with the police.
But pathologists also sometimes complain that law enforcement does not provide them with all the necessary information, that they are forced to change their mind, or that the actors, who are often selected and not always required to have a medical degree, can and will pass on their findings.
Investigators found that some of the chosen deaths occurred because medical researchers failed to comment on the involvement of lawyers on the death certificate, while others were incorrectly listed in the national database.
While the Lancet Study did not address specific issues, there have been recent examples where the first findings of judges or medical examiners have restrained or abandoned police work on the killing of a black man: the death of Ronald Greene in Louisiana, for example. by a coroner to a heart attack and he was accidentally shot before a video came out of him shocked, beaten and dragged by government forces.
In Aurora, Colo., The cause of Elijah McClain’s death was tried unresolved after police put him in a liver and medical doctors stabbed him with ketamine, a comforting force. About two years later, three policemen and political paramedics were charged.
Even in the case of George Floyd, whose last breath was under the knee of a Minneapolis police officer caught on video, police and the district medical examiner began pointing to drug use and medical conditions.
The National Association of Medical Examiners recommends the placement of deaths resulting from law enforcement such as murder, in part reducing the appearance of coverage (murder can be expected to be appropriate). But the order of reference varies from office to office, and there are no national references.
Roger Mitchell Jr., a former medical examiner in Washington, DC, and an expert on the death of detainees, has always said that death certificates should include a check box showing whether the death occurred in custody, including deaths related to incarceration and those in prisons and prisons.
As long as medical researchers are not specifically asked to provide that information, he said, he will not rush to a conclusion about why they do not do this: racism – everything we can imagine – we can know that once we have a uniform. ”
A political law enacted in 2014 requiring lawmakers to report death in custody has not yet released any public information.
The findings of the high-profile papers are similar to those found in a narrow study at Harvard in 2017 that surveyed the same year – 2015 – and compared the number of deaths in the United States with police homicide data reported by The Guardian.
“It shows the ongoing problem of counting police killings in official documents, one of which is death data,” said Justin Feldman, a researcher at Harvard who conducted a 2017 study and was a researcher on a paper published by China in The Lancet.
“This is an ongoing issue that we are still, after all these years, doing very well to protect the victims of police brutality,” he added.
This study ends at a time when America is competing with the high-profile police killings of a black man after another. But, as the study showed, there are tens of thousands of other dead who remain in the shadows.
Judging on the cause and manner of death greatly affects whether criminal offenses are brought or families get social remediation. Mr Floyd’s death was declared a murder and the death certificate stipulated control of the law, but the medical examiner continued to face criticism after prosecutors publicly disclosed his initial findings that medical conditions and drug use had helped.
Formerly a medical researcher in Maryland, Dr. David Fowler, who was also criticized after testifying on behalf of a Minneapolis police officer, said Mr Floyd’s death was caused by a number of factors and was not fatal.
After writing a letter opened by Dr. Mitchell stating that Dr. Fowler’s evidence showed “blatant impartiality,” Maryland’s attorney general began investigating the deaths of detainees committed under Dr. Fowler.
Dr. Murray of the University of Washington said one of the hardest things was that racial differences in police shootings have increased since 2000.
The practice contradicts, he said, as well as other health consequences, such as heart disease, in which the ethnic conflict has declined in recent years.
The study, he and other researchers said, points to the need for a centralized clearing of data on police violence, as well as the evaluation of researchers and medical researchers.
“There have been attempts to stabilize what is available,” said Edwin G. Lindo, a race theory professor and professor at the University of Washington School of Medicine, who reviewed the findings of this research but did not work It together. “And what I would like to say is, if we don’t have the right information we can’t make good decisions, and I don’t know if it’s an accident that is being talked about so much.”